Egg Production Guide

Keep hens healthy

A hen that is healthy and not badly stressed will be resistant to infection by Salmonella bacteria. In the event that it does carry these bacteria, there is less likelihood that they will be shed into eggs if the hen is in good condition.

Things to do:

Maintain optimum temperature and air quality in the house.
Do not allow the supply of feed and water to be interrupted for extended periods except when called for by scheduled management.
Ensure that the water supply is clean and uncontaminated.
Hens should not be overcrowded
Monitor feed and water consumption closely to be able to identify and deal with a disease outbreak as soon as possible.
Maintain good biosecurity, e.g., keep birds, animals and unauthorized people out of the layer house. Farm workers should avoid contact with poultry other than birds in the farm flock.

Keep the house clean

A house that is clean and free of vermin will harbor fewer Salmonella bacteria and present fewer opportunities for contamination of eggs. Rodent control is especially important because rodent feces may contain great numbers of Salmonella bacteria.

Things to do:

Pick up mortality promptly. Carcasses left to go putrid can grow large populations of bacteria, creating risk of hens becoming infected or eggs becoming contaminated.
Don’t let manure build up on dropping boards. Dropping must fall freely away from cages to minimize the number of eggs soiled by fecal materials.
Prevent buildup of dust, dirt, broken eggs, and cobwebs in the house. These can harbor bacteria in the vicinity of hens and eggs.
Scrape or wash dried yolk from broken eggs of egg belts, egg elevators, cross conveyors, and egg packing machines. Clean the egg packer regularly.
Consult your county extension office for information about rodent control, or obtain the services of competent rodent control professionals.
Keep worker restrooms clean.

Handle eggs properly

Fresh, whole eggs contain natural resistance factors that inhibit bacterial growth if the eggs are kept cool.

Things to do:

Collect all eggs promptly, especially in hot weather.
Store unprocessed eggs under refrigeration as soon as possible on farms without in-line processing plants. The temperature in the egg cooler should not rise above its set point except briefly when eggs are moved into or out of the cooler. Repair broken refrigeration units without delay. Keep the cooler door closed.
Handle eggs carefully to minimize cracks.

Keeps pesticides and hazardous chemicals away off eggs

Things to do:

Use pesticides and other hazardous chemicals in the house only when necessary.
Use these products only if approved for egg production.


Quality assurance involves creation of confidence that eggs have been produced under high standards for food safety. This cannot be done without keeping good records. Unfortunately, record-keeping may prove to be the most difficult task in the entire quality assurance program, because, for the most part, people are not used to doing it.

Things to do:

Specific individuals should have the job of keeping specific records.
Records should be kept on file in designated places until they are judged to be obsolete.

How to choose eggs

There are several ways of determining the freshness of an egg. A common test is to place it between the eye and a strong light. If fresh, the white will appear translucent, and the outline of the yolk can be distinctly traced. By keeping, eggs become cloudly and when decidedly stale, a dark, cloudlike appearance may be discerned opposite some portion of the shell.

Another test is to shake the egg gently at the ear; if a gurgle or thud is heard, the egg is bad. Again, eggs may be tested by putting them in a vessel containing a solution of salt and water, in the proportion of a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water. Fresh eggs will sink; if more than six days old, they will float in the liquid; if bad, they will be so light as to ride on the surface of the brine. The shell of a freshly laid egg is almost full, but because the shell is so porous, with age and exposure to air a portion of the liquid substance evaporates and air accumulates in its place.

How to keep eggs

There is a difference of opinion as to which end should be placed down in packing; most authorities recommend the smaller end. However, an experienced poultry man offers the following reasons for packing with the larger end down: The air cell is in the larger end, and if that is placed down, the yolk will not break through and touch the shell and thereby spoil. Also, if the air cell is down, the egg is not so likely to shrink away.

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How to make activated charcoal

You need:

Coconut shells (without meat)
Burning sink
25 percent concentrated solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2) or zinc chloride (ZnCl2)
Sterilized water
Plastic pail
Draining tray
Zipper bags

Before starting the procedure, you can strip off coconut shells, wash thoroughly with clean water and allow them to dry completely. If drying is not done properly, they will be difficult to burn.

→ Hoping that the coconut shells are free of moisture, add them in the burning sink (or drum). Measure the temperature and make sure it is adjusted to about 600 – 900 degrees Fahrenheit. Maintain the recommended temperature range and burn continuously for about 4 ½ hours or until the coconut shells turn into ash. For safe handling, you can leave the ash until it cools down.

→ After the ash has cooled down, take it out carefully from the sink and transfer into a clean plastic pail. Then, pour the 25 percent concentrated solution of calcium chloride or zinc chloride into the plastic pail.

→ The amount of calcium chloride or zinc chloride solution should be such that the ash is soaked completely into the solution. Cover the pail with a lid and leave for 20 – 24 hours. During this process, the chemicals are impregnated into the ash and further treatment will transform the ash into activated charcoal. The next step is removing the charcoal from the chemical solution and transferring it into a draining tray. Allow the treated charcoal to drain for about 1 hour.

→ For removal of trace chemicals from the charcoal, you can wash and rinse it repeatedly with sterilized water. Thorough washing is essential in order to get rid of the chemical solution, which otherwise will remain in the charcoal. It is one of the most common problems in the making of activated charcoal by chemical activation procedure. After washing, keep the charcoal in the tray for draining water. Following this, transfer charcoal into an oven, setting the temperature to about 215 – 230 degrees Fahrenheit and bake for about 3 hours.

→ After baking for the stipulated time, remove the charcoal from the oven and crush it with the help of a blender. You can also grind the charcoal into powder form by using a hammer. For future use, store the powdered charcoal into zipper bags or airtight containers.

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Starting a Business: Franchise or Start Up?

Here’s a checklist for those deciding on whether to start on their own or to get a franchise:

1. Can I follow rules? Or do I want to make my own rules?
If you find it difficult following rules and regulations, be on your own.

2. Can I just assign a manager or do I have to be there myself?
A real entrepreneur is always “hands on”. You should not be afraid to get your hands dirty.

3. What if I change my mind after six months? What if my family asks more time from me?
Do not franchise if you have not asked the family’s consent. Most franchisors want you over the long haul, at least three years, and being fickle will complicate matters.

4. Do I really like the product or I just want it because it is popular?
Do not go into a business you do not enjoy. If you get a franchise, get it because you believe in the product

5. Do you have a really good asset or skill you can capitalize on?
If you do not want to depend only on your skills, get a franchise.

To those who decide to go the franchising route, congratulations! You are about to embark on a safe and steady journey to entrepreneurship. However, choose your franchise business wisely.

Be wary of “fake” franchisors who are after fees but do not have even one successful store to show for their offer. Legitimate franchisors, especially those who have been around for two years or more, can show you their operations and their performance. Check their track record. Visit their stores. Experience their service or prpduct. Talk to existing franchisees. Observe their employees. If you like what you see and believe in the brand, then pursue it.

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How to make polvoron


1 cup plain flour
1 1/2 cup full cream powder milk
1/2 cup sugar ( preferable very fine sugar)
1 cup melted butter or half margarine half butter
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup roasted pinipig

Polvoron Preparation:

Step 1. Roast the flour in a wok (slow heat to avoid burning)

Step 2. Roast flour until it is slightly brown

Step 3. Take it off the heat

Step 4. Mix milk, sugar, pinipig, salt and melted butter with the flour

Step 5. Blend them together

Step 6. Try your molder. Mold one and if it is still too loose, add more butter to it. make sure that you could pick up the polvoron without it crumbling straight away

Step 7. Wrap them with papel de hapon.

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How to make soy sauce


Brown sugar
20-22% Salt solution
Sodium benzoate as preservative
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
Bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii)
Yeast (Hansenula subpellicullosa)
Sugar molasses
Mold (Aspergillus oryzae)

Fermenting Vessels/Vats
Pressure cooker/Horizontal retort
Filter press (Stainless steel)
Funnel/Liquid filling machine
Frying pan

Procedure on how to make Soy Sauce:

Pretreatment of Soybean

Soak soybeans in water overnight, then wash and drain. The soaked beans are steamed with water for one hour at 15 psi. The beans are allowed to cool.


The cooled beans are inoculated with yeast after spreading evenly on a tray or “bistay”. Incubate for 24 hours at room temperature by covering with cheesecloth. This is used as soybean broth. The beans are coated with roasted flour and are subsequently inoculated with mold and bacteria starters. Mix thoroughly and incubate at 30-40oC for 24 hours. The mash formed is transferred into fermenting vats and mixed with 20-22% salt solution. The vats are covered with thick plastic sheets. Fermentation is completed after three months.

Improvement of product

The mixture is clarified with kaolin overnight. The fermented mash is filtered and the brew is pasteurized at 80-85oC for 30 minutes. Caramelized brown sugar is added to improve flavor, color and viscosity of soy sauce. Sodium benzoate is added as a preservative. The product is bottled.

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How to make ginger beer

Ginger beer plant – about a tablespoonful. Remember that you cannot make this from ordinary yeast – you have to find one. They are sometimes available online.

250g sugar
2 litres water (should be chlorine free – a large pinch of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), or the juice of a lemon will remove the chlorine if you are unsure)
½ teaspoon cream of tartar (this stabilises the acid level but is not essential)
Juice of 1 lemon
2 or 3 inches of ginger, peeled and grated (dried ginger powder is an alternative)

The GBP is a pretty resilient creature but it is safest to make sure everything is clean in the kitchen. Tie the grated ginger in a small piece of muslin. Place it (or dried ginger) with the sugar, lemon juice, cream of tartar and water in a large jug. Stir until the sugar has dissolved. Add the GBP. Cover with a cloth fixed in place with an elastic band, or just a lid if there is one.

Leave for about five days (or until it tastes just a little sweeter than you would like the finished product to be) then carefully pour into plastic pop bottles or swing top bottles using a fine sieve and a funnel. (You will find a larger GBP in the sieve than you started with. Remove the muslin then rinse the GBP in fresh water. Use it to make another batch). It is ready to drink within two or three days, though a week is fizzier. The low activity of the yeast and small amount of sugar used will ensure that explosive levels of CO2 are not reached, but it may be worth checking a test bottle every now and then by loosening the lid just to make sure. Chilling in the fridge will stop any further fermentation if you are happy with the level of fizz and sweetness.

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How to make home made ice cream


1/2 gallon powdered milk
1-1/2 gallon coconut milk
1/3 gallon evaporated milk
2 kilo sugar
1/3 kilo corn starch


Mix all ingredients using mixer (or egg beater) until the consistency is foamy.
Pour in a stainless steel pan or boiler. Let boil for 15 minutes to kill any microbes or bacteria. Set aside to cool.
Put desired flavoring (artificial flavors): vanilla, lemon or kalamansi (can be obtain from peels), chocolate, coffee, nuts, cashew and others. You can also use real fruit flavors like mango, ube, macapuno, cheese, etc.
Put into freezer for half an hour or until half-frozen.
Remove from freezer and mix again (with big wooden spon or egg beater) until the consistency becomes a thick mass.
Transfer it in round stainless container. Cover, put it in wooden push cart. Put lots of crushed ice and salt between the container. You can use dry ice as an alternative.
The ice-cream will get hard in 20 minutes.

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